Lithium Batteries are classified as lithium primary battery (or non-rechargeable battery) and lithium secondary battery (or rechargeable battery) roughly with recharging capability.


Comparing with lithium secondary batteries, Lithium primary batteries have some limitation of applications and demands, but their demand is steadily increasing with the superior performance in industrial applications requiring long term lifetime without maintenance.


Lithium primary batteries have different voltage and performance upon what cathode and anode materials are used.


Following is the comparison table of commonly used lithium primary batteries.

Description Li/MnO2 Li/SO2 Li-SOCl2 Li-SO2Cl2 Li/(CF)x, (CF)n Li/FeS2
Materials Cathode MnO2 SO2 SOCl2 SO2Cl2 (CF)x, (CF)n FeS2
Anode Li Li Li Li Li Li
Electrolyte Organic Inorganic Inorganic Inorganic Organic Propylene
Nominal Voltage(V) 3.0V 2.8V 3.6V 3.9V 3.0V 1.5V
Energy Density Wh/kg 280 250 500~700 330 360~500
Wh/L 580 400 1200 720 1000
Yearly Self


1~2% ~3% 1% under 1~2% @60’C 0.5%

@85’C 1%



-30~+60’C -55~+70’C -55~+85’C -40~+85’C -40~+85’C -40~+60’C
Application Security, Alarm, OBUs Military Military, Industrial OBUs, Metering Industrial Metering, OBU, Military Gas,


Remarks Low voltage,

Low Cost

Limited applications Safety issue, Long life,

Initial voltage drop

Highest voltage,



Higher self


High cost,

Low self


Superior high

temp. performance

Long life



High cost

From above lithium primary batteries, 3.6V Lithium Thionyl Chloride Battery has the following characteristics.


  1. High Voltage

The battery has 3.67V as OCV and it is the highest voltage range among batteries.


  1. Voltage Stability

The battery’s operating voltage keeps stable during its service life.  Generally, it has stable working voltage until 70~90% per discharge current and then starts to drop.


  1. Wide Operating Temperature Range

The battery can be used at wide range of operating temperatures, -55~+85’C.  High temperature version can be used at Max. +130’C or +150’C.


  1. Superior Long Shelf Life

The battery has very low self discharge, less than 1% per year at room temperature, so it provides actual shelf life of over 20 years.  LiCl film on the lithium anode surface can reduce the self discharge whereas it can cause initial voltage drop with passivation.


  1. High Energy Density

The battery provides the highest energy density (max. 700Wh/kg) among primary batteries.


  1. Safety

Lithium Thionyl Chloride Batteries have bobbin structure and spirally wound structure.

Bobbin structure provides unique safety with chemical reactions of oxidation and reduction and internal dead space and very limited amount of lithium and the position of lithium against the inner wall of the cell case.  Thus, there is no excessive heat generation and explosion under short circuit conditions.


Spirally wound structure may cause explosion under abnormal conditions, so it requires safety vent and fuse.


COROS Battery has Li-SOCl2 Bobbin Batteries (1/2AA, 2/3AA, AA, A, C, D size) and Li-SOCl2 Spirally wound Batteries (C, D size) with extra high temperature batteries.

Lithium Primary Battery

3.6v Lithium Primary Battery

Major applications are the devices requiring long life devices with low current or medium currents like memory backup, electric energy meters, water meters, calorie meters, sensors, security units, medical, military and etc.



3.0V Lithium Manganese Dioxide Battery has following characteristics.


  1. High and stable voltage, Lifetime estimation upon working voltage
  2. External application temperature range -30~+60’C
  3. Low self discharge: 1% per year at room temperature


COROS Battery has Li-MnO2 (CR123A, CR2, CR17450, CR17505 and etc.)

Lithium Primary Battery manufacturer

Major applications are Security devices, LED lantern, Smoke detectors, AED (Defibrillator), Beauty equipment and etc.